ABAP Quick Reference

This is the first of two posts, providing a quick reference for ABAP developers. It primarily consists of code examples and doesn’t include major object oriented programming features, introduced in newer language versions.

The second part of this series, targeting OOP related topics, can be found here: ABAP Objects Quick Reference

ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE. It is currently positioned, alongside Java, as the language for programming the SAP Application Server, which is part of the NetWeaver platform for building business applications.
Wikipedia ABAP article

Basic program structure
PARAMETERS pa_num TYPE i.

* declare a variable
DATA gv_output TYPE i.

* assign value from pa_num to gv_output
MOVE pa_num TO gv_output.

WRITE: 'Input value', gv_output.

NEW-LINE. " this is an inline comment

WRITE 'Done'.

Types

Standardtypes

  • I: Integer (4 bytes)
  • F: Floating point number (8 bytes)
  • D: Date JJJJMMTT (8 bytes)
  • T: Time HHMMSS (6 bytes)
  • STRING: String of dynamic length
  • XSTRING: Hexadecimal string
  • DECFLOAT16: Decimal floating point (8 bytes)
  • DECFLOAT34: Decimal floating point (16 bytes)
  • The common data type “boolean” doesn’t exist in ABAP. Use a custom solution (e.g. X for true and (whitespace) for false)

Incomplete data types

  • C: Character array of fixed length
  • N: Numerical character of fixed length
  • X: Hexadecimal byte array of fixed length
  • P: Packed number of fixed length (and optionally number of digits)
Type definition
TYPES gty_default_float TYPE p LENGTH 16 DECIMALS 2.
Constants
CONSTANTS gc_constvar TYPE type_name VALUE value.
Value assignments
MOVE pa_input TO gv_output.
gv_output = pa_input.

* increment
ADD 1 TO pa_input.
pa_input = pa_input + 1.
Arithmetic operators
  • + addition
  • - subtraction
  • * multiplication
  • / division
  • ** potentiate
  • DIV integer division
  • MOD modulo
Branching
IF pa_input > 0.
  " code
ELSEIF pa_input = 0.
  " code
ELSE.
  " code
ENDIF.
CASE pa_input.
  WHEN 0.
    " code
  WHEN -1.
    " code
  WHEN OTHERS.
    " code
ENDCASE.
Loops
DO.
  " loop code

  IF <abort condition>. 
    EDIT. 
  ENDIF.
ENDDO.
DO n TIMES.
  " loop code
ENDDO.
WHILE <condition>.
  " loop code
ENDWHILE.
SELECT <fields> FROM <table> WHERE <condition>.
  " select loop content iterates over the result table
ENDSELECT.
LOOP AT <internal table>.
  " loop code
ENDLOOP.
System fields
  • sy-mandt: login mandator
  • sy-uname: user name
  • sy-langu: user language
  • sy-datum: local date of the ABAP system
  • sy-uzeit: local time of the ABAP system
  • sy-tcode: current transaction code
  • sy-repid: name of the current ABAP program
  • sy-index: loop counter for DO and WHILE loops
Message boxes
* general 
MESSAGE tnnn(message_class)  [ WITH v1 [ v2 ] [ v3 ] [ v4 ] ].

* info message example
MESSAGE i005(general_messages).
  • i: info message
  • w: warning
  • e: error
  • a: exit program
  • s, x
Subroutine
* subroutine call
PERFORM calc_perc
  USING
    gv_inta
    gv_intb
  CHANGING
    gv_result.

* subroutine defition
FORM calc_perc
  USING
    pv_act TYPE i
    pv_max TYPE i
  CHANGING
    cv_pc TYPE f.

cv_pc = pv_act * 100 / pv_max.

ENDFORM.
Functions

Call function

CALL FUNCTION 'FUNCTION_NAME'
  EXPORTING
    iv_inta = pa_inta
    iv_intb = pa_intb
  IMPORTING
    ev_result = gv_result
  EXCEPTIONS
    division_by_zero = 1
    OTHERS = 2.

* exception handling of classical exceptions
IF sy-subrc <> 0.
  WRITE 'Exception raised'.
ELSE.
  " work with data
ENDIF.

Define function (partly)

FUNCTION FUNCTION_NAME.

  " code

  IF iv_intb = 0.
    RAISE division_by_zero. " exception
  ELSE
    ev_result = 50.
  ENDIF.

ENDFUNCTION.
Exception handling
* classical exceptions
CASE sy-subrc.
  WHEN 0.
    " no exception has been raised
    " process data
  WHEN 1.
    " exception with code 1
  " ...
ENDCASE.


* class based exception handling
TRY.
  " call method
CATCH exception_name.
  " catch code
ENDTRY.
Create objects
* create reference
DATA reference_name TYPE REF TO class_name.

* create object
CREATE OBJECT reference_name.
Call methods
* call method via reference
CALL METHOD reference_name->method_name.

* call static method
CALL METHOD class_name=>method_name.
Structure with local type
* define structure
TYPES:
  BEGIN OF gty_s_structure,
    " components
    field_1 TYPE i,
    field_2 TYPE d,
    field_3 TYPE p LENGTH 4 DECIMALS 1,
  END OF gty_s_structure.

* create structure
DATA gs_name TYPE gty_s_structure.

* access component
gs_name-field1 = 5.
Copy from structure to structure
DATA: 
  gs_a TYPE gty_s_abc,
  gs_b TYPE gty_s_xyz.

* ...

MOVE-CORRESPONDING gs_a TO gs_b.
Tables

Local tables

* declare with table type
DATA gt_table TYPE table_type.

* detailed declaration
DATA gt_table
  TYPE < STANDARD / SORTED / HASHED >
  TABLE OF structure_type
  WITH < NON-UNIQUE / UNIQUE > KEY ... .

* short form
DATA gt_table TYPE TABLE OF structure_type.


* create structure like table row
DATA structure LIKE LINE OF table.

Manipulate tables

APPEND structure TO table.
INSERT structure INTO table <condition>.
READ TABLE table INTO structure <condition>.
MODIFY TABLE table FROM structure [<condition>].
DELETE table <condition>.

* condition example
READ TABLE table INTO structure WHERE id = 17.


SORT table [BY attribute < DESCENDING / ASCENDING >].

* reset content
REFRESH table.
CLEAR table.

* free memory
FREE table.

Get data

* select multiple rows (table to table)
SELECT <fields>
  FROM <table> 
  INTO <target_table> 
  WHERE <condition>.

* select into structure (table to structure)
SELECT SINGLE <fields> 
  FROM <table> 
  INTO <target_structure> ... .

* select into similar structure (table to similar structure)
SELECT SINGLE <fields> 
  FROM <table> 
  INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF <target_structure> ... .

Permission check

AUTHORITY-CHECK
  OBJECT 'structure'
    ID 'attribute' FIELD variable.

IF sy-subsrc = 0.
  " access
ELSE
  " no permission
ENDIF.
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Applied Scientist with Zalando and Founder of Denk Development. Interested in data science, software engineering, math, microcontrollers, and sports.
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